Virginia Tech Libraries' Special Collections Guide to Civil War Manuscript Collections
The English Civil War — was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians " Roundheads " and Royalists " Cavaliers " over, principally, the manner of England's government.
The first —46 and second —49 wars pitted the supporters of King Charles Visit web page against the supporters of the Long Parliamentwhile the third —51 saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I pay for my best personal essay on civil war the exile of his son, Charles II ; and the replacement of English monarchy with, at first, the Commonwealth of England —53 and then the Protectorate under the personal rules of Oliver Cromwell —58 and his son — The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors' consolidating the pay for my best personal essay on civil war Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland.
Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was only legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution in These wars were not restricted to England as Wales was a part of the Kingdom of England and was affected accordingly, and the conflicts also involved wars with, and civil wars within, both Scotland and Ireland.
The war in all these countries are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Unlike other civil wars in Englandwhich focused on who should rule, this war was more concerned with the manner in which the kingdoms of EnglandScotlandand Ireland were governed.
The strongholds of the royalty included the countryside, the shires, and the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. On the other hand, all the cathedral cities except Chester, Hereford and the royalist stronghold of Oxford sided with Parliament.
All the industrial centers, the ports, and the economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England typically were parliamentary strongholds. Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populist, rich, and rebellious seemed to go hand in here. The brigades would arrange themselves in lines of musketeers, three deep, where the first row would kneel, the second would crouch, and the third would stand, allowing all three to fire a volley simultaneously.
Positioned on each side of the infantry were the cavalry, with a right-wing led by the lieutenant-general, and a left-wing by the commissary general; the pay for my best personal essay on civil war goal of the cavalry was to rout the opponent's cavalry and then turn and overpower their infantry.
Prince Rupert, the leader of the king's cavalry, learned a tactic while fighting in the Dutch army where the cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry firing their pistols just before impact. While the Parliamentarian cavalry were slower than pay for my best personal essay on civil war cavaliers, they were also better disciplined. Cromwell's cavalryon the other hand, trained to operate as a single unit, which led to many decisive victories.
Elizabeth's death had resulted in the accession of her first cousin twice-removedKing James VI of Scotlandto the English throne as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms. In spite of this, James' personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-Parliamentary sources of income. This extravagance was tempered by James' peaceful disposition, so that by the succession of his son Charles I to the English and Scottish thrones in the two kingdoms had both experienced relative peace, both internally and in their relations with each other, for as long as anyone could remember.
Charles hoped to unite the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland into a new single kingdom, fulfilling the dream of his father. As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown James had described kings as "little gods on Sie cheap persuasive essay writer for hire for college Informationen, chosen by God to rule in accordance with the doctrine of the " Divine Right of Kings "the suspicions of the Parliamentarians had some justification.
Instead, Parliament functioned as a temporary advisory committee and was summoned only if and when the monarch saw fit. Once summoned, a parliament's continued existence was at the king's pleasure, since pay for my best personal essay on civil war was subject to dissolution by him at any time.
Yet in spite of this limited role, Parliament had, over the preceding centuries, acquired de facto powers of enough significance that monarchs could not simply ignore them indefinitely. Without question, for a monarch, Parliament's most indispensable power was its ability to raise tax revenues far in excess of all other sources of revenue at the Crown's disposal.
By the seventeenth century, Parliament's tax-raising powers had come to be derived from the fact that the gentry was the only stratum of society with the ability and authority to actually collect and remit the most meaningful forms of taxation then available at the local level. This meant that if the king wanted to ensure a smooth collection of revenue, he needed the co-operation of the gentry. For all of the Crown's legal authority, by any modern standard, its resources were limited to the extent that, if and when the gentry refused to collect the king's taxes on a national scale, the Crown lacked any practical means with which to compel them.
Therefore, in order to secure their co-operation, monarchs permitted the gentry and only the gentry to elect representatives to sit in the House of Commons. When assembled along with the House of Lords, these elected representatives formed a Parliament. The concept of Parliaments therefore allowed representatives of the gentry to meet, primarily at least in the opinion of the monarch so that they could give their sanction to whatever taxes the monarch expected their electorate to collect.
In the process, the representatives could also confer and send policy proposals to the king in the form of bills. However, Parliament lacked any legal means of forcing its will upon the monarch; its only leverage with the king was the threat of its withholding the financial means required to execute his plans. The Parliament refused to assign him the traditional right to collect customs duties for his entire reign, deciding instead to grant it only on a provisional basis and negotiate with him.
Military support for Protestants on the Continent was, in itself, popular both in Parliament and with the Protestant majority in general, [ citation needed ] and it had the potential to alleviate concerns brought about by the King's marriage to a Catholic. However, Charles's insistence on having pay for my best personal essay on civil war unpopular royal favourite George Villiers, the Duke of Buckinghamassume command of the English force undermined that support.
Unfortunately for Charles and Buckingham, the relief expedition proved a fiasco and Parliament, already hostile to Buckingham for his monopoly on royal patronageopened impeachment proceedings against him. This move, while saving Buckingham, reinforced the impression that Charles wanted to avoid Parliamentary scrutiny of his ministers. The elected members included Oliver Cromwell and Edward Coke.
The new Parliament drew up the Petition of Rightand Charles accepted it as a concession in order to obtain his subsidy. First and foremost, to avoid Parliament, the King needed to avoid war. Charles made peace with France and Spain, effectively ending England's involvement in the Thirty Years' War. However, that in itself was far from enough to balance the Crown's finances.
Unable to raise revenue without Parliament and unwilling to convene it, Charles resorted to other means. One method was reviving certain conventions, often long-outdated. For example, a failure to attend and to receive knighthood at Charles's coronation was a finable offence with the fine paid to the Crown. The King also tried to raise revenue through the ship money tax, by exploiting a naval-war scare indemanding that the inland English counties pay the tax for the Royal Navy.
Established law supported this policy, but authorities had ignored it for centuries, and many regarded it as yet another extra-Parliamentary and therefore illegal tax. In John BastwickHenry Burtonand William Prynne had their ears cut off for writing pamphlets attacking Laud's views—a rare penalty for gentlemenand one that aroused anger. The Church of Scotlandreluctantly episcopal in structure, had independent traditions. This was violently resisted; a riot broke out in Edinburgh,  which may have been started in St Giles' Cathedralaccording to legend, by Jenny Geddes.
In Februarythe Scots formulated their objections to royal policy in the National Covenant. In the spring ofKing Charles I accompanied his forces to the Scottish border to end the rebellion known as the Bishops' War.
The truce proved temporary, and a second war followed in the middle of This time, a Scots army defeated Charles's forces in the north, then captured Newcastle. He had insufficient funds, however, and needed to seek money from a newly elected English Parliament popular dissertation chapter proofreading services for mba The Scots went on to invade Sites ghostwriting letter kingdom united, occupying Northumberland and Durham.
If he did not, they would "take" the money by pillaging and burning the cities and towns of Northern England. As King of Scots, he had to find money to pay the Scottish army in England; as King of England, he had to find money to pay and equip an English army to defend England. His means of raising English revenue without an English Parliament fell critically short of achieving this.
It immediately began to discuss grievances against Charles and his government and with Pym and Hampden of ship money fame in the lead, took the opportunity presented by the King's troubles to force various reforming measures—including many with strong 'anti-Papist' themes—upon him.
Other laws passed by the Parliament made it illegal for the king pay for my best personal essay on civil war impose taxes without Parliamentary consent and later gave Parliament control over the king's ministers.
Finally, the Parliament passed a law forbidding the King to dissolve it without its consent, even if the three years were up. Ever since, this Parliament has been known as the "Long Parliament". However, Parliament did attempt to avert conflict by requiring all adults to sign The Protestationan oath of allegiance to Charles.
Henry Vane the Younger supplied evidence in relation to Strafford's claimed improper use of the army in Ireland, alleging that Strafford was encouraging the King to use his army raised in Ireland to threaten England into compliance. This evidence was obtained from Vane's father, Henry Vane the Eldera member of the King's Privy council, who refused to confirm it in Parliament out of loyalty to Charles.
On 10 AprilPym's case collapsed, but Pym made a direct appeal to Henry Vane the Younger to produce a copy of the notes from the King's Privy council, discovered by the younger Vane and secretly turned over pay for my best personal essay on civil war Pym, to the great anguish of the Elder Vane. Charles, however, guaranteed Strafford click at this page he would not sign the attainder, without which the bill could not be passed.
Yet, increased tensions and a plot in the army to support Strafford began to sway the issue. Charles, still incensed over the Commons' handling of Buckingham, refused. Strafford himself, hoping to head off the pay for my best personal essay on civil war he saw looming, wrote to the king and asked him to reconsider. The Long Parliament then passed the Triennial Actalso known as the Dissolution Act in Mayto which the Royal Assent was readily granted.
This act also forbade ship money without Parliament's consent, fines in destraint of knighthood and forced loans. Monopolies were cut back severely, and the Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission were abolished by the Habeas Corpus Act and the Triennial Act respectively. Throughout May, the House of Commons launched several bills attacking bishops and episcopalianism in general, each time defeated in the Lords. Pay for my best personal essay on civil war and his supporters continued to resent Parliament's demands, while Parliamentarians continued to suspect Charles of wanting to impose episcopalianism and unfettered royal rule by military force.
Within months, the Irish Catholics, fearing a resurgence of Protestant power, struck firstand all Ireland soon descended into chaos. When the troops pay for my best personal essay on civil war into Parliament, Charles enquired of William Lenthallthe Pay for my best personal essay on civil waras to the whereabouts of the five.
Lenthall replied, "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here. Opposition to Charles also arose owing to many local grievances. For example, the imposition of drainage schemes in The Fens negatively affected the livelihood of thousands of people after the King awarded a number of drainage contracts.
This sentiment brought with it people such as the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwelleach a notable pay for my best personal essay on civil war adversary of the King. Conversely, one of the leading drainage contractors, the Earl of Lindseywas to die fighting for the King at the Battle of Edgehill. As the summer progressed, cities and towns declared their sympathies for one faction or the other: for example, the garrison of Portsmouth under the command of Sir George Goring declared for the King,  but when Charles tried to acquire arms for his cause from Kingston upon Hullthe depository for the weapons used in the previous Scottish campaigns, Sir John Hothamthe military governor appointed by Parliament in January, refused to let Charles enter Hull,  and when Charles returned with more men later, Hotham drove them off.
Throughout the summer months, tensions rose and there was brawling in a number of places, with the first death from the conflict taking place in Manchester. Historians estimate that between them, both sides had only about 15, men. Many areas attempted to remain neutral. Some formed bands of Clubmen to protect their localities against the worst excesses of the armies of both sides,  but most found it impossible to withstand both the King and Parliament.
On one side, the King and his supporters fought for traditional government in Church and state. On the other, most supporters of the Parliamentary cause initially took up arms to defend what they thought of as the traditional balance of government in Church and state, which the bad advice the King had received from his advisers had undermined before and during the "Eleven Years' Tyranny.
After the debacle at HullCharles moved on to Nottinghamwhere on 22 Augusthe raised the royal standard. Charles moved in a south-westerly direction, first to Staffordand then on to Shrewsburybecause the support for his cause seemed particularly strong in the Severn valley area and in North Wales.
As in the case of Kingston upon Hull, they had taken measures to secure strategic towns and cities by appointing to office men sympathetic to their cause, and on 9 June they had voted to raise an army of 10, volunteers and appointed Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex commander three days later.
On 14 September he moved his army to Coventry and then to the north of the Cotswolds a strategy which placed his army between the Royalists and London. With the size of both armies now in the tens of thousands, and only Worcestershire between them, it was inevitable that cavalry reconnaissance units would sooner or later meet.
This happened in the first major skirmish Start-up custom movie review writing sites liverpool Sie the Civil War, when a cavalry troop of about 1, Royalists commanded by Prince Ruperta German nephew of the King and one of the outstanding cavalry commanders of the war,  defeated a Parliamentary cavalry detachment under the command of Colonel John Brown in the Battle of Powick Bridgeat a bridge click to see more the River Teme close to Worcester.
The Council decided to take the London route, but not to avoid a battle, for the Royalist generals wanted to fight Essex before he grew too strong, and the temper of both sides made it impossible to postpone the decision.
In the Earl of Clarendon's words: "it was considered more counsellable to march towards London, it being morally sure that the earl of Essex would put popular thesis proposal proofreading websites united states in their way". This had the desired effect, as it forced Essex to move to intercept them. In the same year, Oliver Cromwell formed his troop of " Ironsides ", a disciplined unit that demonstrated his military leadership ability.
With their assistance, he won a victory at the Battle of Gainsborough in July. They were protesting at Westminster. A peace demonstration by London women, which turned violent, was suppressed by William Waller 's regiment of horse. Some women were beaten and even killed, and many arrested.
The turning point came in the late summer and early autumn ofwhen the Earl of Essex's army forced the king to raise the siege of Gloucester  and then brushed the Royalist army aside at the First Battle of Newbury 20 September in order to return triumphantly to London. Other Parliamentarian forces won the Battle of Winceby giving them control of Lincoln.
Political manoeuvring to gain an advantage in numbers led Charles to negotiate a ceasefire in Ireland, freeing up English troops to fight on the Royalist side in England,  while Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for aid and assistance.
With the help of the Scots, Parliament won at Marston Moor 2 July gaining York and the north of England. The defeat at the Battle of Lostwithiel in Cornwall, however, marked a serious reverse for Parliament in the south-west of England. It passed the Self-denying Ordinanceby which all members of either House of Parliament laid down their commands, and re-organized its main forces into the New Model Armyunder the command of Sir Thomas Fairfaxwith Cromwell as his second-in-command and Lieutenant-General of Horse.
He began to form an axis between Oxford and Newark on Trent in Nottinghamshire. Those towns had become fortresses and showed more reliable loyalty to him than to others. He took Leicesterwhich lies between them, but found his resources exhausted.
Having little opportunity to replenish them, in May he sought shelter with a Presbyterian Scottish army at Southwell in Nottinghamshire. Charles I took advantage of the deflection of attention away from himself to negotiate a secret treaty with the Scots, again promising church reform, on 28 December Forces loyal to Parliament  put down most of the uprisings in England after little more than skirmishes, but uprisings in Kent, Essex and Cumberland, the rebellion in Wales, and the Scottish invasion involved the fighting of pitched battles and prolonged sieges.
Colonel Thomas Horton defeated the Royalist rebels at the Battle of St Fagans 8 May  and the rebel leaders surrendered to Cromwell on 11 July after the protracted two-month siege of Pembroke.
Fairfax, after his success at Maidstone and the pacification of Kentturned northward to reduce Essexwhere, under their ardent, experienced and popular leader Sir Charles Lucasthe Royalists had taken up arms in great numbers. Fairfax soon drove the enemy into Colchesterbut his first attack on the town met with a repulse and he had to settle down to a long siege. The battle took place largely at Walton-le-Dale near Preston in Lancashire, and resulted in a victory by the troops of Cromwell over the Royalists and Scots commanded by Hamilton.
Nearly all the Royalists who had fought in the First Civil War had given their parole not to bear arms against the Parliament, and many of these, like Lord Astleyletter popular for masters services ghostwriter to break their word by taking pay for my best personal essay on civil war part in the second war.
So the victors in the Second Civil War showed little mercy to those who had brought war into the pay for my best personal essay on civil war again. On the evening of the surrender of Colchester, Parliamentarians had Sir Charles Lucas pay for my best personal essay on civil war Sir George Lisle shot. Those who still supported Charles' place on the throne, such as the army leader and moderate Fairfax, tried once more to negotiate with him. They allowed only 75 Members in, and then only at the Army's bidding.
Pay for my best personal essay on civil war Rump Parliament received orders to set up, in the name of the people of England, a High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I for treason.
At the end of the trial pay for my best personal essay on civil war 59 Commissioners judges found Charles I guilty of high treasonas a "tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy". Helierhe was publicly proclaimed King Charles II following the first public proclamation in Edinburgh on 5 February Ireland had known continuous war since the rebellion ofwith most of the island controlled by the Irish Confederates.
After the siege of Drogheda the massacre of nearly 3, people—comprising around 2, Royalist soldiers and others, including civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests Cromwell claimed all the men were carrying arms —became one of the historical memories popular essay service australia has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries.
The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland ground on for another four years untilwhen the last Irish Confederate and Royalist troops surrendered. Bythe struggle had left the Royalists there in disarray and their erstwhile leader, the Marquess of Montrosehad gone into exile. At first, Charles II encouraged Montrose to raise a Highland army to fight on the Royalist side.
However, Montrose, who had raised a mercenary force in Norway,  had already landed and could not abandon the fight. He did not succeed in raising many Highland clans and the Covenanters defeated his army at the Battle of Carbisdale in Ross-shire on 27 April The victors captured Montrose shortly afterwards and took him to Edinburgh.
On 20 May the Scottish Parliament sentenced him to death and had him hanged the next day. In response to the threat, Cromwell left some of his lieutenants in Ireland to continue the suppression of the Irish Royalists and returned to England.
By the end of August disease and a shortage of supplies had reduced his army, and he had to order a retreat towards his base at Dunbar. A Scottish army, assembled under the command of David Leslietried to block the retreat, but Cromwell defeated them at the Battle of Dunbar on 3 September. Cromwell's army then took Edinburgh, and by the end of the year his army had occupied much of southern Scotland.
In JulyCromwell's forces crossed the Firth of Forth into Fife and defeated the Scots at the Battle of Inverkeithing 20 July Cromwell followed Charles into England, leaving George Monck to finish the campaign in Scotland.
Monck took Stirling on 14 August and Dundee on 1 September. Cromwell finally engaged and defeated the new king at Worcester on 3 September Resistance continued for a time in the Channel Pay for my best personal essay on civil war Ireland and Scotland, but with the pacification of England the resistance elsewhere did not threaten the military supremacy of the New Model Army and its parliamentary paymasters.
During the Wars, the Parliamentarians established a number of successive committees to oversee the war-effort. The first of these, the Committee of Safetyset up in July pay for my best personal essay on civil war, comprised 15 Members of Parliament. During the period of the English Civil War, the role of bishops as wielders of political power and as upholders of the established church became a matter of heated political controversy.
John Calvin formulated a doctrine of Presbyterianismwhich held that in the New Testament the offices of presbyter and episkopos were identical; he rejected the doctrine of apostolic succession. Calvin's follower John Knox brought Presbyterianism to Scotland when the Scottish church was reformed in In practice, Presbyterianism meant that committees of lay elders had a substantial voice in church government, as opposed to merely being subjects to a ruling hierarchy.
This vision of at least partial democracy in ecclesiology paralleled the struggles between Parliament and the Pay for my best personal essay on civil war. A body within the Puritan movement in the Church of England sought to abolish the office of bishop and remake the Church of England along Presbyterian lines.
The Martin Marprelate tracts —89applying the pejorative name of prelacy to the church hierarchy, attacked the office of bishop with satire that deeply offended Elizabeth I and her Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift.
The vestments controversy also related to this movement, seeking further reductions in church ceremony, and labelling the use of elaborate vestments as "unedifying" article source even idolatrous. King James Ireacting against the perceived contumacy of his Presbyterian Scottish subjects, adopted "No Bishop, no King" as a slogan; he tied the hierarchical authority of the bishop to the absolute authority he sought as king, and viewed attacks on the authority of the bishops as attacks on his own authority.
Matters came to a head when King Charles I appointed Read more Laud as the Archbishop of Canterbury ; Laud aggressively attacked the Presbyterian movement and sought to impose the full Anglican liturgy. The controversy eventually led to Laud's impeachment for treason by a pay for my best personal essay on civil war of attainder inand subsequent execution.
Charles also attempted to impose episcopacy on Scotland; the Scots' violent rejection of bishops and liturgical worship sparked the Bishops' Wars in — During the height of Puritan power in the Commonwealth and the Protectorateepiscopacy was formally abolished in the Church of England on 9 October In the Channel Islandsthe island of Jersey and Castle Cornet in Guernsey supported the King until in December they surrendered with honour.
Although the newer, Puritan settlements in North America, most notably Massachusettswere dominated by Parliamentarians, the older colonies sided with the Crown.
Friction between royalists and Puritans in Maryland came to a head in the Battle of the Severn. The Virginia Company's settlements, Bermuda and Virginiaas well as Antigua and Barbados were conspicuous in their loyalty to the Crown. Bermuda's Independent Puritans were expelled, settling the Bahamas under William Sayle as the Eleutheran Adventurers.
Parliament passed An Act for prohibiting Trade pay for my best personal essay on civil war the Barbadoes, Virginia, Bermuda and Antego in October,which stated that due punishment [be] inflicted upon the said Delinquents, do Declare all and every the said persons in Barbada's, Antego, Bermuda's and Virginia, that have contrived, abetted, aided or assisted those horrid Rebellions, or have since http://onlinepharmacynoprescription.co/best-article-review-editing-sites-london.php joyned with them, to be notorious Robbers and Traitors, and such as by the Law of Nations are not to be permitted any maner of Commerce or Traffique with any people whatsoever; and do forbid to all maner of persons, Foreiners, and others, all maner of Commerce, Traffique and Correspondency whatsoever, to be used or held with the said Rebels in the Barbada's, Bermuda's, Virginia and Antego, or either of them.
The Act also authorised Parliamentary privateers to act against English vessels trading with the rebellious colonies: All Ships that Trade with the Rebels may be surprized. Goods and tackle of such ships not to be embezeled, till judgement in the Admiralty.
The Parliament began assembling a fleet to invade the Royalist colonies, but many of the English islands in the Caribbean were captured by the Dutch and French in during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Far to the North, Bermuda's regiment of Militia and its coastal batteries prepared to resist an invasion that never came. The colony made a separate peace that respected its internal status quo.
The Parliament of Bermuda avoided the Parliament of England's fate during The Protectoratebecoming one of the oldest continuous legislatures in the world. Virginia's population swelled with Cavaliers during and after the English Civil War. Even so, Virginia Puritan Richard Bennett was made Governor answering to Cromwell infollowed by two more nominal "Commonwealth Governors".
The loyalty of Virginia's Cavaliers to the Crown was rewarded after the Restoration of the Monarchy when King Charles II dubbed it the Old Dominion. As usual in wars of this era, disease caused more deaths than combat. There are no accurate figures for these periods, and it is not possible to give a precise overall figure for those killed in battle, as opposed to those who died from disease, or even from a natural decline in population.
Figures for casualties during this period are unreliable, but some attempt has been made to provide rough estimates. Historical records count 84, dead from the wars themselves.
Counting in accidents and the two Bishops' wars, an estimate ofdead is achieved,  out of a total population of about five million. Casualties include the deaths of pay for my best personal essay on civil war in conditions that accelerated their deaths, with estimates of 10, prisoners not surviving or not returning home 8, captured during and immediately after the Battle of Worcester were deported to New EnglandBermuda and the West Indies to work for landowners as indentured labourers .
There are no figures to calculate how many died from war-related diseases, but if the same ratio of disease to battle deaths from English figures is applied to the Scottish figures, a not proposal writers website ca estimate of 60, people is achieved,  from a population of about one million.
Certainly the devastation inflicted on Ireland was massive, with the best estimate provided by Pay for my best personal essay on civil war William Pettythe father of English demography. Petty estimates thatProtestants andCatholics were killed through plaguewar and faminegiving an estimated total ofdead,  from a pre-war population of about one and a half million.
Many of those sold to landowners in New England eventually prospered, but many of those sold to landowners in the West Indies were worked to death. These estimates indicate that England suffered a 3. Putting these numbers into the context of other catastrophes helps to understand the devastation pay for my best personal essay on civil war Ireland in particular. The contemporary guild democracy movement won its greatest successes pay for my best personal essay on civil war London's transport workers, notably the Thames watermen.
Some communities improved their conditions of tenure on such estates. But some gains were long-term. The democratic element introduced in the watermen's company infor example, survived, with vicissitudes, until In the wake of victory, many of the ideals and many of the idealists became sidelined. The republican government of the Commonwealth of England ruled England and later all of Scotland and Ireland from to and from to Between the two periods, and due to in-fighting amongst various factions in Parliament, Oliver Cromwell ruled over the Protectorate as Lord Protector effectively a military dictator until his death in On 4 Aprilin the Declaration of BredaCharles II made known the conditions of his acceptance of the Crown of England.
On 8 Mayit declared that King Charles II had reigned as the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I in January Charles returned from exile on 23 May Pay for my best personal essay on civil war 29 Maythe populace in London acclaimed him as king. These events became known as the Restoration. It was no coincidence that the United Kingdom was spared the wave of revolutions that occurred in Europe in the s. Pay for my best personal essay on civil war, future monarchs became wary of pushing Parliament too hard, and Parliament effectively chose the line of royal succession in with the Glorious Revolution and in the Act of Settlement.
After the RestorationParliament's factions became political parties later becoming the Tories and Whigs with competing views and varying abilities to influence the decisions of their monarchs.
They explained the Civil War as resulting from a centuries-long struggle between Parliament especially the House of Commons and the Monarchy, with Parliament defending the traditional rights of Englishmen, while the Stuart monarchy continually attempted to expand its right to arbitrarily dictate law.
The most important Whig historian, Pay for my best personal essay on civil war. Gardiner[ full citation needed ] popularised the idea that the English Civil War was a "Puritan Revolution": challenging the repressive Phd essay site sf Church, and preparing the way for religious toleration in the Restoration.
Thus, Puritanism was the natural ally of a people preserving their traditional rights against arbitrary monarchical power. The Whig view was challenged and largely superseded by the Marxist school, which became popular in the s, and which interpreted the English Civil War as a bourgeois revolution. According to Marxist historian Christopher Hill : The Civil War was a class war, in which the despotism of Charles I was defended by the reactionary forces of the established Church and conservative landlords, Parliament beat the King because it could appeal to the enthusiastic support of the trading and industrial classes in town and countryside, to the yeomen and progressive gentry, and to wider masses of the population whenever they were able by free discussion to understand what the struggle was really about.
Thus, revisionist historians claim to have discredited some Whig and Marxist interpretations of the English Civil War. For example, the wars began when King Charles I tried imposing an Anglican Prayer Book upon Scotland, and when this was met with resistance from the Covenantershe needed an army to impose his will.
However, this forced him to call an English Parliament to raise new taxes to pay for the army. The English Parliaments were not willing to grant Charles the revenue he needed to pay for the Scottish expeditionary army unless he addressed their grievances.
By the early s, Pay for my best personal essay on civil war was left in a state of near permanent crisis management; often he was not willing to concede enough ground to any one faction to neutralise the threat, and in some circumstances to do so would only antagonise another faction.
For example, Charles finally agreed upon pay for my best personal essay on civil war help writing popular masters essay on hillary the Covenanters in Augustbut although this might have weakened the position of the English Parliament, the Irish Rebellion of broke out in Octoberlargely negating the political advantage he had obtained by relieving himself of the cost of the Scottish invasion.
He reports that the causes of the war were the doctrines of politics and conflicts that arose from science that disputed those political doctrines. It also served as a political statement to explain why King Charles I was incapable of holding his place of power and maintaining peace in his kingdom. Some scholars suggest that Behemoth has not received its due pay for my best personal essay on civil war as an academic work, being comparatively overlooked and underrated in the shadow of Leviathan.
While philosophical dialogues are common, historical ones are not. The essay illuminates a flaw shared by most of Hobbes's political philosophy as well, which is his lack of ability or willingness to empathize with perspectives that pay for my best personal essay on civil war differed from his own.
As his perspective was so much at odds with other views, Hobbes struggled to understand the thinking of most of his potential audience and people in general. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Prince Rupert of the Rhine. Part of a series on the. Economy in the Middle Ages. Black Death in England. Social history of the United Kingdom —present.
Political history of the United Kingdom —present. Social history of England. History of education in England. History of the economy of England. History of the politics of England. History of the English language. Kingdom of Great Britain. East Riding of Yorkshire. By city or town. Main article: Bishops' War Main article: Pay for my best personal essay on civil war Parliament. Main article: First English Civil War. Main article: Second English Civil War.
Main article: Third English Civil War See also: Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. See also: Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. For more details on this topic, see English overseas possessions in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Retrieved 4 October Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 8 April Find more about English Civil War at Wikipedia's sister projects. Wars continue reading the Three Kingdoms. Scottish Bishops' War — Irish Pay for my best personal essay on civil war Rebellion Irish Confederate Wars — First English Civil War — Scottish Civil War — Second English Civil War — Irish Cromwellian War — Third English Civil War — European Wars of Religion.
Eighty Years' War Anglo-Spanish War, — Thirty Years' War Franco-Spanish War, — England in the Late Middle Pay for my best personal essay on civil war. Wars of the Roses. Union of the Crowns. Acts of Parliament: to Articles on the pay for my best personal essay on civil war of England. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in.
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Pay for my best personal essay on civil war Analysis and Summary of “Civil Disobedience” by Henry David Thoreau
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Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in.
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In his essay “ Civil Disobedience," Henry David Thoreau opens by saying, “I heartily accept the motto, ‘That government is best which governs least’" (), and.
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A sheriff in the Hudson River Valley near Albany, New York, about to go into the hills in the fall of to collect back rents from tenants on the enormous.
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A sheriff in the Hudson River Valley near Albany, New York, about to go into the hills in the fall of to collect back rents from tenants on the enormous.
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Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in.